Overdue Outing

It had been a while since I’ve done any portable operating. I decided to remedy that with a trip to a nearby park today.

I took a short drive over to Upper Schuylkill Valley Park, one of my favorite spots. It would have been a good day to operate outside, but melting snow from a recent storm had made a mess of things. Instead, I opted to set up my KX3 in the truck with my usual 19.5-foot vertical on the back.

My antenna near the last vestiges of the nor'easter we had this week.
My antenna near the last vestiges of the nor’easter we had this week.

When I turned on the radio, I found the 40M band to be in pretty good shape. I heard K4MHC in North Carolina calling “CQ SKCC” and gave him a call. Keith was also running QRP.  After exchanging SKCC numbers, we had a nice chat. Over the next hour or so, I added a few more SKCC stations to my log and had a couple of nice ragchews in the process.

A view of the Schuylkill River at Upper Schuylkill Valley Park
A view of the Schuylkill River at Upper Schuylkill Valley Park

It wasn’t the most exciting outing but it sure was good to be back out there.

72, Craig WB3GCK

U.S. Navy Morse Code Training

The material below is from a training manual used by U.S. Navy enlisted personnel studying for advancement to the rates of Radioman 3rd Class and Radioman 2nd Class (E4 and E5, respectively). This edition, dated 1967, was still around in the early 1970s when I used it. While it may provide a nostalgic look back for former Navy radio operators, much of the material on technique may still be useful for today’s beginning amateur radio operators. Enjoy! — WB3GCK

Source:  Radioman 3 & 2, Chapter 4, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Navy Training Course NAVPERS 10228-E, 5th Edition, 1967

Cover page. Radioman 3 & 2, Chapter 4, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Navy Training Course NAVPERS 10228-E, 5th Edition, 1967

Chapter 4
International Morse Code

The international Morse code is a telegraphic alphabet, with letters and numbers represented by sound patterns.

If you are a graduate of a Class A Radioman School, you were taught the Morse code, consequently much of this chapter may be of little interest to you. But, if this is your first acquaintance with the code – if you are striking for Radioman from the deck force, or changing to Radioman from another rating – you have many hours of hard work ahead. Do not be discouraged on this account. Many fine Radiomen learn the code for themselves.

The letters in Morse code are represented by dots and dashes; radio operators, however, substitute the expressions “dits” and “dahs,” which closely resemble the sounds of the telegraphic hand key. The groups of dits and dahs representing each letter must be made as one unit, with a clear break between each dit and each dah, and a much more distinct break between the letters. A dit is one-third the length of a dah.

You must never try to count the dits and dahs. Do not let yourself get in the habit of doing so. It is a temptation at first, but you won’t be able to count fast enough when the code speed picks up. Learn sound patterns instead. To understand what a sound pattern is, rap out the pattern beginning “Shave and a haircut.” You recognize this from its characteristic rhythm, not because it has a certain number of beats in it. You must learn the code the same way. There are 36 Morse sound patterns for the letters and numbers, plus a few others representing prosigns and punctuation marks. With study and drill you can learn to recognize each pattern as fast as you now recognize “Shave and a haircut.” The accent always falls on dahs, and you should pronounce each rhythmical combination with that emphasis in mind.

Go through the alphabet several times to get the sound “feel” of the dit and dah combinations.

MORSE ALPHABET

In the pronunciation guide for sounds of letters that follows, sounds are written as phonetically as possible. In the middle of a group, the short sound “dit” actually takes on the sound “di.” The phonetic alphabet is included in parentheses after the letters. Acquire the habit of referring to the letters phonetically.

      Letter               Pronunciation
      A (ALFA)    -------- di-DAH
      B (BRAVO)    ------- DAH-di-di-dit
      C (CHARLIE)    ----- DAH-di-DAH-dit
      D (DELTA)    ------- Dah-di-dit
      E (ECHO)    -------- dit
      F (FOXTROT)     ---- di-di-DAH-dit
      G (GOLF)    -------- DAH-DAH-dit
      H (HOTEL)    ------- di-di-di-dit
      I (INDIA)   -------- di- dit
      J (JULIETT)    ----- di-DAH-DAH-DAH
      K (KILO)   --------- DAH-di-DAH
      L (LIMA)    -------- di-DAH-di-dit
      M (MIKE)    -------- DAH-DAH
      N (NOVEMBER)     --- DAH-dit
      0 (OSCAR)    ------- DAH-DAH-DAH
      P (PAPA)    -------- di-DAH-DAH-dit
      Q (QUEBEC)     ----- DAH-DAH-di-DAH
      R (ROMEO)     ------ di-DAH-dit
      S (SIERRA)    ------ di-di-dit
      T (TANGO)    ------- DAH
      U (UNIFORM)    ----- di-di-DAH
      V (VICTOR)    ------ di-di-di-DAH
      W (WHISKEY)    ----- di-DAH-DAH
      X (XRAY)    -------- DAH-di-di-DAH
      Y (YANKEE)     ----- DAH-di-DAH-DAH
      Z (ZULU)    -------- DAH-DAH-di-dit

      Number             Pronunciation
      1----------------  di-DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH
      2----------------  di-di-DAH-DAH-DAH
      3----------------  di-di-di-DAH-DAH
      4----------------  di-di-di-di-DAH
      5----------------  di-di-di-di-dit
      6----------------  DAH-di-di-di-dit
      7----------------  DAH-DAH-di-di-dit
      8----------------  DAH-DAH-DAH-di-dit
      9----------------  DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH-dit
      0----------------  DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH
      Punctuation Mark    Pronunciation
      Hyphen (dash)  ---- DAH-di-di-di-di-DAH
      Parenthesis  L ---- DAH-di-DAH-DAH-di-DAH
                   R ---- DAH-di-DAH-DAH-dit
      Point   ----------- di-DAH-di-DAH-di-DAH
      Slant  ------------ DAH-di-di-DAH-dit
      Apostrophe  ------- di-DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH-dit
      Colon  ------------ DAH-DAH-DAH-di-di-dit
      Comma   ----------  DAH-DAH-di-di-DAH-DAH
      Question mark  ---- di-di-DAH-DAH-di-dit

STUDYING CODE

If you have any trouble learning Morse code, the following method may be helpful. Go through the three groupings of short, medium and long sounds with their accompanying practice words. Make up words of your own if you wish to give yourself further practice. Speak the practice words in code. Say “tee: DAH dit dit;” “mine: DAH-DAH di-dit DAH-dit dit.”

If you can speak words in code rapidly and distinctly, you will have an easier time when you learn to receive code on the receiver. The sounds are very similar.

You probably have noticed by now how numerals slow your speech in oral transmission. That is understandable – they also slow the speed of radio transmission. Headings containing procedure signs, calls, and numerals are transmitted at a slower rate of speed than straight alphabetical characters.

      Short sounds              Practice words 
   
      E dit                     TEE ATE EAT TEA MEAT
      T dah                     MEET MINE TIME MAINE
      A di-DAH                  TEAM AIM NITE TAME TEA
      I di-dit                  MATE TAME NAME MITE
      M DAH-DAH                 MIAMI MAMA MEAN MAN MAT
      N DAH-dit                 EMIT MINT MANE TAN ITEM TINT
  
    
      Medium length sounds      Practice words
     
      D DAH-di-dit              MUST SAME MAMA SUIT AUTO
      G DAH- DAH- dit           MUSS OUST MUSE MUTE ATOM
      K DAH-di-DAH              TAUT MAST MASS SUET SAM
      0 DAH-DAH-DAH             WIND SEA TUM SAW OAT
      R di-DAH-dit              SUE SAT WED SUM MUD IOU
      S di-di-dit               USE SEAM WOOD DARK
      U di-di-DAH               GEORGE DOWN KIND SORT
      W di-DAH-DAH              DOOR MASK WORK GROW
                                WOMAN EDGE GAGE
                                WIGS WORM WAGER
                                WAKE KEG
   
   
      Long sounds              Practice words
     	  
      B DAH-di-di-dit          VAT VET VIM HAM SIX
      C DAH-di-DAH-dit         SAY
      F di-di-DAH-dit          HAS HAT EVE CUT
      H di-di-di-dit           CAM  VEST
      J di-DAH-DAH-DAH         HEAT HAVE MUCH
      L di-DAH-di-dit          THAT EACH
      P di-DAH-DAH-dit         COAT ACHE SAVE HUSH
      Q DAH-DAH-di-DAH         ACME
      V di-di-di-DAH           CUTE BAKER CHARLIE
      X DAH-di-di-DAH          FIVE
      Y DAH-di-DAH-DAH HOW     JIMMY LIKE
      Z DAH-DAH-di-dit         PAPA QUICK QUILL
                               VICTORY XRAY YOUNG
                               ZERO BUZZ GARGLE
                               FIZZLE LYNX OXYGEN
                               WAX QUAY JERKY WHIP
                               QUEBEC
  
    
      Figure sounds
	  
      1. di-DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH
      2. di-di-DAH-DAH-DAH
      3. di-di-di-DAH-DAH
      4. di-di-di-di-DAH
      5. di-di-di-di-dit
      6. DAH-di-di-di-dit
      7. DAH-DAH-di-di-dit
      8. DAH-DAH-DAH-di-dit
      9. DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH-dit
      0. DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH-DAH

RECEIVING

If you have carried out the recommendations made up to this point, you are ready to receive code transmitted to you on an oscillator. The ship or station to which you are attached is almost certain to have practice oscillators for your use.

An experienced Radioman will key code groups to you for your training. The sound produced by an oscillator closely resembles the sound of code from the radio receiver. The operator keying to you for practice should transmit each individual character at the standard rate of 20 words per minute. He should maintain a fairly long interval between characters. As you progress, you gain speed by shortening spaces between characters.

The standard character speed is shown in figure 4-1. Note that the characters themselves may be keyed at 20 words per minute, but that the longer intervals between characters and words materially decrease the beginner’s overall speed. Note also that the code, compared against time in the 20-words-per-minute transmission, is in the proper form of having the dit as a unit. There is one unit between each element of a character, three units between each character, and seven units between each group or word.

Figure 4-1. Correct keying of Morse characters.

After learning the sound of each character at this rate of speed, it is not difficult to reduce the time between characters and to copy code at a much faster speed.

As you advance in rating, you will be required to increase your transmission and reception speed. If you learn the fundamentals well, it will be fairly easy for you to increase your speed. When copying code, if you miss a character, don’t stop to worry about it; get the next character and let the one missed go by. Be a competent operator. Make every transmission and every reception accurately. Do not place speed before accuracy.

PRINTING CLEARLY

Learn to print clearly and rapidly. The messages you handle are important, and someone must read what you have written without puzzling over it. Examine figure 4-2 and compare the printed letters with your own. Notice that the sequence of strokes for some letters may be different from the way you customarily form them. As an aid to rapid printing, the more of the letter you can form with a single stroke, the better. Use this illustration as a guide to avoid confusions between printed letters and printed numerals. Especially watch the letter Z and the numeral 2. If you wish, write Z with a line through the stem (-Z). Even more important is the distinction between the capital letter O and the figure zero. In communication work, zero is always written with a slant through it (Ø). Exercise care to avoid confusion between letter I and figure 1, and also letter S and figure 5.

Figure 4-2. How to form printed characters.

As your code speed increases, you will find it impossible to print rapidly enough to keep up; therefore, typewriting is a skill also required of all Radiomen. Use of a good commercial text can help you master touch-typing. A typing course for beginners also is offered by USAFI.

SENDING

Your ability to send well depends mainly upon two capabilities. First, you must know the correct sound of the character you are attempting to transmit. Second, you must know the proper method for keying with perfect control. Practicing the code aloud, as well as receiving it by oscillator, has given you a good knowledge of code sound. The proper method for keying is your next concern.

HAND KEY

The first key you will use is the hand key. The hand key is widely used on radiotelegraph circuits and with practice oscillators. It must be adjusted properly before you can send clearcut characters. Figure 4-3 shows a hand key, with parts labeled.

Figure 4-3. Hand key.

KEY ADJUSTMENT

The spring tension screw, behind the key button, controls the amount of upward tension on the key. The tension desired varies with operators. Too much tension forces the key button up before the dahs are completely formed; spacing between characters is irregular, and dits are not clearly defined. If the spring tension is very weak, characters run together and the space between characters is too short.

The gap between the contacts, regulated by the space adjusting screw at the back of the key, should be set at one-sixteenth inch for beginners. This measurement does not apply to every key and operator; it is a matter of personal preference. Some operators like a closed key, others an open key. “Closed” and “open” are terms for a short and a long gap. As the student progresses, further gap adjustment may be made to suit his sending speed. Contacts that are too close have an effect similar to weak spring tension. Contacts that are spaced too far have the same effect as too much spring tension.

The final adjustment of the key is the sidewise alignment of the contact points. This alignment is controlled by the trunnion screws at either side of the key. If they are too tight, the key lever binds. If they are too loose, the contacts have sidewise play. Usually, when the sidewise alignment is correct, no further adjustment is required.

POSITION OF HAND ON KEY;
WRIST MOVEMENT

Learn from the beginning the correct way to grasp the key. Do not hold the key tightly, but let your fingers rest lightly on the key knob. Your thumb rests against the side, your forefinger rests on top of the key, your other fingers are bent slightly in a relaxed position. Check figures 4-4 and 4-5 for the correct method of keying. To ensure correct movement of your wrist and forearm, your arm should lie on the operating desk. The muscle of your forearm – not your elbow – should support the weight of your arm. Your elbow should not extend over the edge of the table, because the pressure of the underside of your forearm will partly block circulation and tire you. Sit upright, with your arm in line with the key.

Figure 4-4. Grasping the key. Figure 4-5. Your thumb rests against the side.

Your ability to transmit depends to a great extent on acquiring the proper movements of your wrist and hand while operating the key. To close the key, your wrist moves upward and your hand rocks downward toward your fingertips. To open the key, these two movements are reversed- your wrist comes down and your hand rocks back.

Make your wrist flexible. Limber it up. Correct wrist action may be developed by moving your wrist up and down like a hinge. Another exercise is rotating your hand in clockwise circles, with your wrist held in a stationary position. These exercises will relieve any undue tension you may experience when first beginning to transmit.

SEMIAUTOMATIC KEY

The semiautomatic key, also known as the bug or speed key, is used chiefly when operators are required to send for relatively long periods of time. It is designed to make sending easy instead of fast. Hence, perfect control of the key is far more important than speed.

OPERATION

In sending with the bug, the thumb presses the dit paddle (fig. 4-6) to the right, and the index finger forms dahs by pressing the knob to the left. The key sends successive dits when the paddle is held to the right. One dit or a series may be sent, depending on how long the thumb pressure is maintained against the paddle. One dah is formed every time the knob is pressed to the left. Dahs must be sent individually. While sending, the hand pivots at the wrist; the hand and arm motion is horizontal.

Figure 4-6. Semiautomatic key.

KEY ADJUSTMENT

Best operation of the semiautomatic key is obtained when it is adjusted to send dits and spaces of equal length. Adjust the key as follows, locating the parts in figure 4-6 when adjusting the key:

  1. Adjust the back stop screw until the reed lightly touches the deadener. Tighten the locknut.
  2. Adjust the front stop screw until the separation between the end of the screw and the reed is approximately .015 inch. Tighten the locknut.
  3. Operate the dit paddle to the right. Hold the lever in this position and stop the vibration of the reed. Adjust the dit contact adjusting screw until the dit contacts barely touch. Tighten the locknut. This adjustment determines whether the dits will be too heavy, too light, or perfect. The adjustment must be made without flexing the contact spring.
  4. If the dits are too fast, move the weights, located on the reed, in the direction of the deadener. If the dits are too slow, move the same weights in the opposite direction.
  5. Adjust the dah contact adjusting screw to a clearance of approximately .030 inch.
  6. Adjust the dit refractive and dah tension springs for the most comfortable, operation.

If the adjustment instructions are followed carefully, the bug makes 25 or more dits before stopping. The first 12 to 15 dits will be practically perfect, with the dits and spaces equal.

SENDING EXERCISES

Good operators have sending rhythm, and you can acquire it in just one way: by practice.

It may be difficult for you to key correctly at first, because your wrist is unfamiliar with the type of movement required for sending telegraphic code. Your wrist will be stiff, and you’ll have to get rid of that stiffness by a lot of practice. Don’t favor the stiffness of your wrist. If you do, your sending will be choppy.

The following exercises have been prepared carefully. Use them as an instruction guide.

  • Character E: The dit characters require a “goodfist.” They must be transmitted quickly and rhythmically. Make a series of Es (dits). They are made with a pronounced movement of your wrist upward, returning to the normal position after each dit. At first, maintain a fairly long interval between dits. To assist you in limbering your wrist, exaggerate the movement upward. To prevent tenseness and tiredness of your wrist, remove your hand from the key periodically and flex your wrist. After practicing Es for 15 or 20 minutes, decrease the interval between dits until you are making them rather rapidly. Each sound should continue to be a definite dit, however. Keep at it until you can control each dit.
  • Character I: When you feel that your wrist is limbering up, make the character I (di-dit). Start with your wrist in the normal relaxed position, raise it for the first dit, lower it quickly halfway back, and make the second dit with another quick movement of your wrist upward. Your transmission, made slowly, produces the sound di-dit. As you practice and develop more rhythm, this character acquires the sound of di-dit.
  • Character T: Send a series of Ts (DAH) with a good interval between them. Instead of a quick movement of your wrist upward, make aslower, more definite movement of your wrist and exert more pressure on the key. Send dahs for a few minutes, gradually shortening the interval between characters.
  • Character M: Now try sending strings of Ms (DAH-DAH). As with the character 1, you don’t return your wrist to the beginning position at the end of the first dah, but bring it to the halfway point and then make the last dah. With practice, you’ll soon change the hesitant DAH DAH sound to the snappy DAH-DAH. Don’t forget the correct wrist movements. If you find that your sending requires exertion of forearm muscles or that your shoulder is moving, stop and recheck your wrist motions.

Try these practice groups several times, backward and forward. Make them clearly and distinctly, spending more time on characters that cause you any trouble.

MEET EMIT MITE ITEM

  • Character A: The character A (di-DAH) gives you practice in making a dit and a dah together. Sending motions, in their proper order, are (1) slight pressure of your fingers alongside the key, (2) a quick surge upward of your wrist, (3) a slight relaxing of your wrist to the halfway point, and (4) a final definite upward movement of your wrist. This technique produces the sound dit DAH when you begin to practice it. But keep at it-you’ll soon have the proper di-DAH sound. Avoid tenseness; relax your forearm muscles when sending.
  • Character U: You’re now ready for the character U (di-di-DAH). Start slowly, sending dit dit DAH. Practice it until you get a di-di- DAH sound.
  • Character N: The character N (DAH-dit) requires only slight pressure on the sides of the key, a strong wrist movement upward, a half return, and a quick, short, upward motion for the dit. Practice for several minutes until you are able to send DAH-dit easily and with com- plete relaxation.
  • Character D, Try the letter D (DAH-di-dit). At first, with the correct wrist movement it will be DAH dit dit. But the sound you want to hear is DAH-di-dit-with a swing. Send Ds until you can transmit them with perfect control. Check yourself on the following groups. You should have less difficulty than you did with the first groups.

  • MINED UNITED READY MAUDE TEAMED

  • Character S: Go back to the dits for S (di-di-dit). Get a good position on the key and put your wrist to work. See how quickly you can change the dit dit dit sound to di-di-dit. Relax your forearm.
  • Character V: The letter V is di-di-di-DAH, so you’d better learn how to send it that way. Relax. If your wrist is tied up in a knot, you’ll be sending dit dit dit DAH. Move your wrist up and down easily until you are sending di-di-di-DAH with perfect control. Practice this letter carefully. It is used in every radio test.
  • Character 0: Correctly sent, characters is DAH-DAH-DAH. Keep at it until it stops sounding like three Ts. Test your skill with these words:


DOOM MOST ROAD MOTOR WORST MOTION WOKE ANCHOR DOMO

  • Character H. Character His di-di-di-dit. Send one. If it sounds similar to four Es, your wrist is too stiff. Develop the di-di-di-dit sound.
  • Character B: Send DAH-di-di-dit. It is the Morse code equivalent of B. Practice for perfect control, then try these groups:

  • SOB BASSINET BIND BESTED BEAUTY SNOB BABBITT BURST

  • Character K: At this point you should be prepared to tackle the other characters. They are mostly combinations of the letters you have practiced. Each one has a distinct overall sound. For instance, K should not have the sound DAH-dit-DAH. It should be DAH-di-DAH. Think of the tune “Over There.” You will realize that DAH-di-DAH has the same rhythm as OH-ver THERE-DAH-di-DAH.
  • Character Q: The letter Q (DAH-DAH-di-DAH) has the same rhythm as the words “Payday today.” Say in a monotone “payday today,” then say DAH-DAH-di-DAH. When transmitted, the same swing is given these combinations as when speaking or chanting them.
  • Remaining letters and numerals: The preceding l5 characters have taught you proper wrist movement. You know the remaining 11 letters and 10 figures. Following are 14 practice exercises. Use these exercises for self-drill.

PRACTICE EXERCISES

Practice the remaining letters of the alphabet and the numerals. When you think you’re ready for it, practice the code exercises that follow.

      1. E E E T T T A A A N N N I I I S S S H H H
         M M M O O O E E E T T T A A A N N
         I I I S S S H H H M M M O 0 0 E E E T T T
         I I I M M M A A A N N N S S S O 0 0 H H H
         E E E T T T E E E T T T I I I M M M I I I
         M M M A A A N N N A A A N N N S S S
         O O O S S S
      2. U U U V V V D D D B B B K K K C C C
         W W W J J J P P P U U U V V V D D D
         B B B K K K C C C W W W J J J P P P
         W W W J J J P P P U U U V V V K K K
         C C C B B B D D D U U U D D D V V V
         B B B P P P J J J C C C K K K W W W
         D D D B B B V V V U U U W W W J J J
      3. R R R L L L F F F G G G Z Z Z X X X
         Y Y Y Q Q Q R R R L L L F F F G G G
         Z Z Z X X X Y Y Y Q Q Q G G G Z Z Z
         F F F L L L R R R Y Y Y Q Q Q R R R
         X X X Z Z Z R R R F F F L L L Q Q Q
         Y Y Y G G G Q Q Q Y Y Y R R R
      4. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8
         9 9 9 Ø Ø Ø 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6
         7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 Ø Ø Ø 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
         6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 Ø Ø 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
         8 8 9 9 Ø Ø 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ø 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
         8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6
      5. V U I Y Q Z C X G R S L K J P Q X Z R I
         F C V B W F K D S H Q Z A L K F B V R
         S T U O T M E G Y Z X V E G N I W S L H
         M U A E V U A E W Q G H V C I X Z L N
         R Y U K V U
      6. E 8 Y 7 B 6 X 1 W Ø Z 2 A 3 C 5 S 4 1 2 F
         U 1 F 5 D 8 Q 4 T 6 U 9 Q 2 E Ø S 5 U l Y
         G 2 J 4 S 3 E 5 T 7 Z 8 K 6 M 9 R l A 2 R
         S 7 W B E 9 R 2 A 3 Z 3 X 6 U 8 B 7 C 6 T
      7. MI AN SY NL TY CE DO PS CX ZW QA PK
         LN HU WC VN BM ZS CD QA IU SD LM UH
         GY TR DC VT AR YU FD SA IG WQ XT ZI
         NY OT ED BM LP YU GH BY RE DF LS
         WQ XS ZI TY BG NH JV KL MD MI AN SY
         NL TY CE DO PS
      8. EF TS 16 29 83 ZJ 45 Ø7 WR ND KW IC UX
         91 Ø2 1B LO FG 84 63 XW AC TM SU 5Ø 72
         XR RJ ZM 43 65 VH 97 LM 12 46 7Ø FC FE
         EY 34 56 27 FT FY JU IT 98 76 75 52 DE
         WE QT 13 36 57 KF RI YT 19 93 35 41 FK
         YU 96 Ø1 MC AR TH 19 25 3Ø UR BO UL
         32 Ø5 21
      9. NDT EGH RTS LYB FCC ZEX PIH CWE
         LKJ QIE NUG CVT EPL SZW QAU SH
         GBT VRT GIK GYO DCM XSD ZAU YER
         DLN URG HNB VDX ZWS QTA GHI PT
         MBY PLK RDC ESX IUP PKJ NYH GHT
         DFR VED SWN VBT XFZ RDA SEN FU
         GBC YRF DSE WNJ GVA SWQ QIX ZOT
         MEH GKD BGV CFI ATA RUR SAC LT
         NVR DAB BLM INY EGB LKO MWD SKZ
         QLD YGB NDT EGH RRS FLM FCC ME
     10. OVLH MYBL URXO HIZO VICT
         FINX SCXS HTYV IQNT UBML
         ABLB EJLN CYZB ZWCN JNDZ
         UTLZ KLAB DEFZ VNUW KFRE
     11. JICOY TXSTY 38Ø95 RDIHA
         JXTDZ OXYDW XPZSY RSPHD
         89706 CUSPI RNBRJ 65289 ZONIG
         FYEQU ARQNV RNLPT KAKOZ
         8784Ø BVGAN WKOQT SRQMT
         UJVWN 45872 YXBCX AFKOZ
         OGLCT NIHGP 12349 ATUSK
         SLEWQ
     12. OLMX MVNH UWQR NVUT KUXF
         CDEH LYHE DIPA ZQWI AYSK
         QIQA WMNW ZIHZ CAKD BTGW
         WNLI PWBU OXAD XFRJ IQCA
     13. ZMJXI URYNC 9347Ø PQAZM
         DEGVM NCBVG HUGHY 13267
         PHRAN QUECC 1289Ø MCNDH
         EUIRY WQAZX IRSVZ MCURI
         72439 OYTRW PIQAW CNJWO
         OWQAJ OISKM 1Ø7Ø6 DGFHG
         KSBOU
     14. UTHA VNCB RFDS EDCD CXVD
         RWQI MNJF STRO TNBL UJHK
         NIOQ JUYR GBNX VCXT RJTU
         BCDV CGFH 5781 JGVX HGJD

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Continue sending to yourself with the practice key and oscillator. If you can operate with another striker, so much the better. Sit down at an unused operating position and tune in some slow code. It is not hard to find, especially on amateur frequencies. Copy as best you can. Don’t worry too much about missing letters. Get what you can, no matter how little it is. As your speed picks up, tune in faster code. If you find you are copying a certain speed solidly, the code is too slow. Keep it faster than you can copy comfortably.

You will need lots of practice. Class A Radioman Schools ashore run a full day, and for months a man copies code several hours daily. Make the transition from pencil copying to the typewriter as soon as possible.

As you gain skill, try copying the 18-wpm to 20-wpm fleet broadcasts. Devote as much time as possible-15 or 20 hours per week-not just an hour now and then. Do not be afraid to use some of your off-duty time. Simultaneously, begin to learn how to hold down a circuit. One of the best ways to do this is to spend several watches logging circuits that other operators are manning. At the end of every watch, compare your log with that of the regular operator, and question him about anything you do not understand. That way you see procedure in use and gain practice in copying many fists.

Learn to copy behind. If you are recording B as D, S as I, J as W, and so on, you are copying too close. The farther behind the better. At first, listen to one character while setting down the previous one. Try to fall back one letter more. Listen for the character while carrying one in your head and setting down the one before that. Once you have the knack, you will find copying behind is easier, faster, and more accurate. The faster the code, the farther, you must stay behind. Watch an oldtimer copy press at 35 or 40 wpm. You will find he is carrying anywhere from 5 words to a sentence in his head.

One further word of advice: It is common for a student learning code to hit a plateau. The regular progress to higher speeds stops, and for a time the student finds himself unable to copy faster than a certain speed. If this happens to you, just stay with it until your speed picks up. Never lose confidence in the knowledge that any man of ordinary ability can learn the code if he puts in the necessary time and work

Halloween Surprise

When I checked the mail yesterday, I found an envelope from my old QRP buddy, Ed WA3WSJ. Since yesterday was Halloween, the contents of the envelope seemed appropriate for the day.

WA3WSJ Zombie Shuffle QSL Card
WA3WSJ Zombie Shuffle QSL Card

As I mentioned in a previous post, I worked Ed a couple of weeks ago during the Zombie Shuffle QRP contest. The envelope I received contained a special QSL card and a certificate that Ed had made up.

WA3WSJ Zombie Shuffle Certificate
WA3WSJ Zombie Shuffle Certificate

Thanks to WA3WSJ for the Holloween surprise. He always does it up right for the Zombie Shuffle!

Be sure to head over to Ed’s webpage to see what else he is up to.

72, Craig WB3GCK

Zombie Shuffle 2018

Once again, the Zombie Shuffle QRP contest coincided with the last trip of the year with our little travel trailer. I did slightly better than last year.

We again wrapped up our camping season at nearby French Creek State Park near Elverson, Pennsylvania. After setting up the trailer, my XYL and I had an errand to do. As a result, I got started a little later than I wanted to.

The WB3GCK mobile zombie hunting command and control center
The WB3GCK mobile zombie hunting command and control center

When we got back to the campsite, I hastily set up my 29.5-foot vertical about 25 feet away trailer. Since the weather was a bit breezy and chilly, I ran the coax into the trailer and set up the KX3 in there.

The campground was a little noisier (RF-wise) than usual but it didn’t stop me from making contacts. Fittingly, my first contact was with W0UFO on 20M. I managed to find 8 more zombies on 40M, including my friend, Ed WA3WSJ who lives fairly close to French Creek.  I dropped down to 80M and bagged two more zombies there.

My Zombie Shuffle operating position inside the WB3GCK QRP Camper
My Zombie Shuffle operating position inside the WB3GCK QRP Camper

With 11 zombies in the log, I had my best year yet. Among those 11 zombies were 4 “Elvis” stations. This silly, laid-back contest is one of my favorite QRP events of the year. Many thanks to Paul NA5N and Jan N0QT for organizing the Shuffle. It’s always a fun time.

On a sadder note… It’s now time to Winterize the QRP camper and put it into hibernation until Spring. Hopefully, the Winter goes by fast.

72, Craig WB3GCK

FT-817 Power Connection

I’ve seen a lot of discussion on the Internet lately about the FT-817’s less-than-robust DC power connector. Its miniature coaxial power connector has long been recognized as a failure waiting to happen. I thought I’d chime in with my crude, little hack.

Over the years, users have come up with a variety of ways of dealing with the FT-817’s power connector. If you’re brave enough, you can just hard-wire the power cord directly to the FT-817’s main circuit board and eliminate the connector altogether. You can also buy a really slick adapter that gives you an Anderson Powerpole connector on your FT-817.

When I bought my FT-817 almost 15 years ago, I was immediately leary of the little 4.0 x 1.7 mm power connector; there was no way it was going to hold up in the field. I didn’t know of any commercial options at the time, so I raided my junk box to come up with a solution, albeit a crude one.

The power cord with an Anderson Powerpole connector attached to my FT-817
The power cord with an Anderson Powerpole connector attached to my FT-817

I merely attached a small right angle lug to the FT-817’s ground screw. Then, I used a couple of small nylon cable ties to secure the power cable to the lug and provide some strain relief. I installed Powerpole connectors on the other end of the cable. It’s not pretty but it served the purpose.

Close-up of the right-angle lug attached to the ground stud. Two small nylon tie-wraps secure the power cord to the lug. An unused lug is shown in the bottom of the picture.
Close-up of the right-angle lug attached to the ground stud. Two small nylon tie-wraps secure the power cord to the lug. An unused lug is shown in the bottom of the picture.

Although my FT-817 doesn’t see as much field use as it used to, my stupid-simple hack is still going strong after 15 years. While this approach doesn’t eliminate the FT-817’s little DC connector, it has (so far) survived many years of portable use in the field.

72, Craig WB3GCK

Leaf Peepers QRP Contest

I was pleased to be able to participate in the first-ever running of the Leaf Peepers QRP Contest. This new contest is the brainchild of Tim W3ATB. Although the Fall colors are barely getting started here in southeastern Pennsylvania, it was a good reason to get out and do some portable operating.

In the spirit of killing two birds with one stone, I headed up to Evansburg State Park (K/KFF-1351) near Collegeville, Pennsylvania. I figured I would work the contest while making Parks on the Air (POTA) contacts. Although this park is only about 25 minutes away from my home, I have never done a POTA activation from there. Today was the day.

The Skippack Creek Loop Trail in Evansburg State Park
The Skippack Creek Loop Trail in Evansburg State Park

I found a nice parking spot across the road from some restrooms. (This is a major consideration for us old guys.) There were very few others nearby so I practically had the place to my self. I put my 19.5-foot vertical on the back of my truck and set up my KX3 in the cab.

My parking spot in Evansburg State Park
My parking spot in Evansburg State Park

I started out on 40M and found some fellow Leaf Peepers but the QSOs were coming at a “relaxed” pace. Given that there were 180 registered Leaf Peeper stations, I thought I would hear more activity. However, I was able to work stations from New Hampshire to Florida and out to Michigan on 40M. The band yielded 7 Leaf Peepers before I switched over to 20M.

On 20M, my CQs yielded one more Leaf Peeper. Since the SKCC QSO Party was underway, I put the KX3 in straight key mode and flipped my paddles on their side to create a straight key. It’s awkward but it works. I picked up two SKCC contacts before pulling the plug.

Here are some of today’s highlights:

  • My second QSO was with Tim W3ATB, creator of the contest and Leaf Peeper #1.
  • I had a park-to-park QSO with Joe N2CX. Joe was at Washington Crossing State Park (K-1634) over in New Jersey.
  • I had another SKCC QSO with Bert F6HKA. He always has a great signal and is usually able to pull my QRP signal out of the noise.

After a little less than 2 hours, I had to pack up to run some errands before heading home. All in all, it was a fun outing and my 10 contacts were enough to qualify as a POTA activation. I don’t know why I waited so long to activate this park.

Thanks to Tim W3ATB for coming up with this contest. I always enjoy these QRP field contests and I’m looking forward to operating in this one again next year.

72, Craig WB3GCK

Oops!

Back in August I moved this blog over to a new hosting provider.  The old site went off-line this morning, as planned except…  I discovered that the migration didn’t go as smoothly as planned.  Many of the older blog posts retained image links to the old site and some images just didn’t migrate over at all, for some reason.  The net result is that many of the older blog posts have missing images.

I’m in the process of restoring the images and finished up the 2018 posts this morning.  However, it’s a somewhat tedious process and will likely go on for another week or two.  I still have more than two years worth of posts to check/fix.

So, if you go back through anything before 2018, you might run into this problem.  Thanks for your patience while the site is being restored.

(Remind me again how computers make my like easier…  HI HI)

73, Craig WB3GCK

[UPDATE 10/3/2018 – I finished restoring the images last night.  If you come across any problems, be sure to let me know. —  Craig WB3GCK]